Opel Insignia Owners & Service Manuals

Opel Insignia: Description and Operation

AUTOMATIC HVAC DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

The air temperature and the air delivery description and operation are divided into eight areas:

  • HVAC Control Components
  • Air Speed
  • Air Delivery
  • Heating and A/C Operation
  • Recirculation Operation
  • Automatic Operation
  • Engine Coolant and A/C System Refrigerant

HVAC Control Components

HVAC Control

The HVAC control contains all switches, buttons, and dials which are required to control the functions of the HVAC system and serve as interface between the operator and the HVAC control module. The selected values are passed to the HVAC control module via LIN-Bus.

HVAC Control Module

The HVAC control module is a GMLAN device that interfaces between the operator and the HVAC system to maintain and control desired air temperature and air distribution settings. The battery positive voltage circuit provides power that the HVAC control module uses for keep alive memory. If the battery positive voltage circuit loses power, all HVAC DTCs and settings will be erased from keep alive memory. The body control module (BCM), which is the vehicle mode master, provides a device ON-Signal.

The HVAC control module provides blower, air delivery mode and air temperature settings.

The HVAC control module supports the following features:

HVAC - Automatic

Actuators

Doors in the HVAC case assembly are used to control air flow. The HVAC control module operates the doors through the use of actuators, with one actuator being used for each door. The system has the following air control doors and associated actuators: mode, main/left temperature, right temperature, and recirculation.

Each actuator used in the system is a 5-wire bi-directional electric motor that incorporate a feedback potentiometer. The five circuits are, low reference, 5 V reference, actuator position signal, and two control circuits. The control circuits use either a ground or 12 V value to coordinate the actuator movement. In order to move the actuator, the HVAC control module grounds one of the control circuits while providing the other with 12 V. The HVAC control module reverses the polarity of the control circuits to move the actuator in the opposite direction.

When the actuator shaft rotates, the potentiometer's sliding contact changes the door position signal between 0 - 5 V. The HVAC control module converts the voltage signal to counts. The total range of the counts is 0 - 1024, with an operating range between 20 - 1000. The actual operating range of an actuator is determined during calibration. During calibration, the actuator is moved though its full range of travel and the module stores the minimum and maximum value. Based on the desired system operation, the module sets a commanded, or targeted, value for the actuators. The control circuits are operated to move the door to the required position, and the changing position signal is sent to the module. Once the actual position signal and the commanded value are the same, the module ceases operating the control circuits and the actuator (and door) remain in the desired position.

Blower Motor Control Module

The blower motor control module controls the speed of the blower motor by increasing or decreasing the voltage drop on the ground side of the blower motor. The HVAC control module provides a low side pulse width modulation (PWM) signal to the blower motor control module via the blower motor speed control circuit. As the requested blower speed increases, the HVAC control module increases the amount of time that the speed signal is modulated to ground. As the requested blower speed decreases, the HVAC control module decreases the amount of time that the signal is modulated to ground.

Duct Temperature Sensors

The duct air temperature sensors are 2-wire negative temperature co-efficient thermistors. The sensors operate within a temperature range of -40 to +85ºC (-40 to +185ºF). The sensors are installed in the air distribution ducts and measure the temperature of the air that streams from the ducts. The HVAC control module uses these values to adjust the mixed air door position according to the requested temperature.

Evaporator Temperature Sensor

The evaporator temperature sensor is a 2-wire negative temperature co-efficient thermistor. The sensor operates within a temperature range of -40 to +85ºC (-40 to +185ºF). The sensor is installed at the evaporator and measures its temperature. If the temperature drops under 3ºC (38ºF), the compressor will be switched off in order to prevent evaporator icing.

A/C Refrigerant High Pressure Sensor

The A/C refrigerant pressure sensor is a 3-wire piezoelectric pressure transducer. A 5 V reference voltage, low reference, and signal circuits enable the sensor to operate. The A/C pressure signal can be between 0.2 - 4.8 V. When the A/C refrigerant pressure is low, the signal value is near 0 V. When the A/C refrigerant pressure is high, the signal value is near 5 V. The engine control module (ECM) converts the voltage signal to a pressure value. When pressure is too high or too low, the ECM will not allow the A/C compressor to engage.

A/C Compressor

This A/C system uses a conventional clutch to engage and mechanically turn the compressor, and a variable displacement solenoid valve to alter the amount of displacement created by the turning of the compressor. The HVAC control module provides both battery voltage and a pulse width modulated ground to the variable displacement solenoid valve. When the A/C switch is pressed, the HVAC control module grounds the variable displacement solenoid using a (PWM) signal in order to determine the amount of compressor displacement. The performance of the A/C compressor is based on adjusted interior temperature and engine load.

Ambient Light/Sunload Sensor

The ambient light/sunload sensor includes the sunload sensor and passenger compartment temperature sensor.

  • Sun heat intensity
  • Passenger compartment temperature

The solar sensor is connected to ground and to a 5 V stabilized voltage supply through the HVAC control module. As the sunload increases, the sensor signal voltage also increases and vice versa. The signal varies between 1.4 - 4.5 V and is provided to the HVAC control module.

The passenger compartment temperature sensor is a negative temperature co-efficient thermistor. A signal and low reference circuit enables the sensor to operate. As the air temperature increases, the sensor resistance decreases. The sensor signal varies between 0 - 5 V.

Bright or high intensity light causes the vehicles interior temperature to increase. The HVAC system compensates for the increased temperature by diverting additional cool air into the vehicle.

Windshield Temperature and Inside Moisture Sensor

The windshield temperature and inside moisture sensor includes the relative humidity sensor, windshield temperature sensor and humidity sensing element temperature sensor all in one assembly.

This sensor assembly provides information about:

  • Relative humidity level at the windshield inside the vehicle
  • Temperature of the windshield inside the vehicle
  • Temperature of the humidity sensor element

Air Speed

The blower control switch is part of the HVAC controls. The selected value of the blower switch position is sent to the HVAC control module via LIN-Bus.

The blower motor control module is an interface between HVAC control module and blower motor. The blower motor control module regulates supply voltage and ground circuits to blower motor. The HVAC control module provides a PWM signal to the blower motor control module in order to command the desired blower motor speed. The blower motor control module supplies battery voltage to the blower motor and uses the blower motor ground as a low side control to adjust the blower motor speed. The voltage amounts between 2 - 13 V and changes linear to the height of the PWM signal.

Afterblow

Afterblow is a feature that dries the evaporator core by operating the blower motor after the engine is turned OFF. This reduces the amount of microbial growth that can create undesirable odors. The vehicle does not come equipped with the afterblow feature turned ON. If the afterblow feature is required due to an odor concern, it must be enabled using the scan tool Afterblow configuration function.

Air Delivery

The HVAC control module controls the distribution of air by the use of recirculation and mode door actuator. The modes that may be selected are:

  • Defrost
  • Defog
  • Panel
  • Floor

The desired air distribution mode can be selected with the air distribution switches at the HVAC control.

The HVAC control delivers the values to the HVAC control module via LIN-Bus. The HVAC control module controls the mode door actuator so that it drives the door to the calculated position. Depending on the position of the door, air is distributed through various ducts leading to the outlets in the dash.

Turning the mode door to the defrost position, the HVAC control module will move the recirculation actuator to outside air, reducing window fogging. When defrost is selected, the blower motor will be activated, regardless of the coolant temperature. The HVAC control module enables a high volume of air delivered to the front defrost vents. A/C is available in all modes.

The rear window defogger does not affect the HVAC system.

Recirculation Operation

The recirculation switch is integrated into the HVAC control. The selected recirculation setting is sent to the HVAC control module via LIN-Bus. The HVAC control module controls the air intake using the recirculation actuator. In recirculation mode the recirculation door is positioned to block outside air from entering and circulate the air within the vehicle. In outside air mode the recirculation door is positioned to route outside air into the vehicle.

Recirculation is only available if the defrost mode is not active. When the defrost mode is active, the recirculation actuator positions the recirculation door so that outside air is circulated to the windshield to reduce fogging.

In automatic mode the values of the sensors are used as inputs for the HVAC control module to calculate the fog risk on the passenger compartment side of the windshield. The A/C compressor and the defrost mode may be activated to prevent or remove fog on the passenger compartment side of the windshield.

Heating and A/C Operation

The purpose of the heating and A/C system is to provide heated and cooled air to the interior of the vehicle. The A/C system will also remove humidity from the interior and reduce windshield fogging.

Regardless of the temperature setting, the following can affect the rate that the HVAC system can achieve the desired temperature:

  • Recirculation actuator setting
  • Difference between inside and desired temperature
  • Blower motor speed setting
  • Mode setting

When the A/C switch is pressed, the HVAC controls sends a signal to the HVAC control module via LIN-Bus. The HVAC control module evaluates this signal and sends an A/C request signal to the ECM via CAN-Bus. The ECM checks all preconditions before releasing and if all conditions are met sends a release signal back to the HVAC control module. The ECM will provide a ground for the A/C compressor relay enabling it to close its internal contacts to send battery voltage to the A/C compressor clutch coil. The A/C compressor clutch will be activated. The performance of the A/C compressor is regulated via a variable A/C compressor solenoid valve. The HVAC control module supplies battery voltage to the A/C compressor. When the A/C switch is pressed, the HVAC control module provides a pulse width modulation (PWM) signal to the A/C compressor solenoid valve in order to command the performance of the A/C compressor.

The following conditions must be met in order to activate the A/C compressor:

  • Battery voltage is between 9 - 18 V
  • Engine coolant temperature is less than 124ºC (255ºF)
  • Engine speed is greater than 600 RPM
  • Engine speed is less than 5 500 RPM
  • A/C high side pressure is between 269 - 2 929 kPa (39 - 425 PSI)
  • Throttle position is less than 100%
  • Evaporator temperature is greater than 3ºC (38ºF)
  • ECM does not detect immoderate torque load
  • ECM does not detect insufficient idle quality
  • The ambient temperature is above 1ºC (34ºF)

The sensor information is used by the ECM to determine the following:

  • The A/C high side pressure
  • An A/C system load on the engine
  • An immoderate A/C high side pressure
  • The heat load at the A/C condenser

The air streams into the passenger compartment through the heater core and the evaporator core. The air temperature actuator drives the mixed air door to direct the airflow. If the interior temperature should be increased, the mixed air door is put into the position in which more air streams through the heater core.

If the interior temperature should be decreased, the mixed air door is put into the position in which more air streams through the evaporator core.

Automatic Operation

In automatic operation, the HVAC control module maintains the comfort level inside of the vehicle by controlling the A/C compressor clutch, the blower motor, the air temperature actuators, mode actuator and recirculation actuator.

To put the HVAC system in automatic mode, the following is required:

1. The auto switch must be activated.

2. The air temperature switch must not be in either the full hot or full cold position.

Once the desired temperature is reached, the blower motor, mode, recirculation and temperature actuators automatically adjust to maintain the temperature selected. The HVAC control module performs the following functions to maintain the desired air temperature:

  • Monitors the following sensors:
    • Ambient air temperature sensor
    • Ambient light/sunload sensor
    • Duct air temperature sensors
    • Windshield temperature and inside moisture sensor
  • Regulate the blower motor speed
  • Position the air temperature actuators
  • Position the mode door actuator
  • Position the recirculation actuator
  • Request A/C operation
  • Control of the A/C compressor

When the warmest position is selected in automatic operation the blower speed will increase gradually until the vehicle reaches normal operating temperature. When normal operating temperature is reached the blower stays on high speed and the air temperature actuators stays in the full heat position.

When the coldest position is selected in automatic operation the blower stays on high and the air temperature actuators stay in full cold position. The mode actuator remains in the panel position and the recirculation actuator will remain in the recirculation position.

Under cold ambient temperatures, the automatic HVAC system provides heat in the most efficient manner. The operator can select an extreme temperature setting but the system will not warm the vehicle any faster. Under warm ambient temperatures, the automatic HVAC system also provides air conditioning in the most efficient manner. Selecting an extreme cool temperature will not cool the vehicle any faster.

Heater Coolant Pump

The primary purpose of the heater coolant pump is to circulate engine coolant through the HVAC heater core when heat is required in the cabin for comfort. If the HVAC control module has determined heat is needed for the cabin, a request is sent via serial data to the engine control module to turn the pump ON.

The engine control module controls the auxiliary coolant pump relay via the heater core coolant pump relay control circuit. The heater core coolant pump relay supplies voltage to the heater core coolant pump.

Engine Coolant and A/C System Refrigerant

For information on engine coolant, coolant flow, A/C refrigerant, and the A/C refrigerant cycle, refer to fluids and capacities service information.

    READ NEXT:

     HVAC - Manual

    SPECIFICATIONS FASTENER SPECIFICATIONS Reusable Threaded Fastener Tightening Specifications NOTE: All fasteners listed in this table can be reused after removal. REPAIR INSTRUCTIONS HEATER AND AIR CO

     Seat Belts

    SCHEMATIC WIRING DIAGRAMS SEAT BELT WIRING SCHEMATICS Seat Belts

     Diagnostic Information and Procedures

    DTC B0072 or B0073 Diagnostic Instructions Perform the Diagnostic System Check - Vehicle prior to using this diagnostic procedure. Review Strategy Based Diagnosis for an overview of the diagnosti

    SEE MORE:

     Specifications, Schematic and Wiring Diagrams

    Specifications TEMPERATURE VERSUS RESISTANCE - INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE S TEMPERATURE VERSUS RESISTANCE - ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR ALTITUDE VERSUS BAROMETRIC PRESSURE IGNITION SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS FASTENER SPECIFICATIONS Single Use Non-Threaded Fasteners/Components NOTE: All fasteners/c

     Electronic Suspension Control

    SPECIFICATIONS FASTENER SPECIFICATIONS Reusable Threaded Fastener Tightening Specifications NOTE: All fasteners listed in this table can be reused after removal. SCHEMATIC AND WIRING DIAGRAMS ELECTRONIC SUSPENSION CONTROL WIRING SCHEMATICS Module Power, Ground, and Serial Data (F45) Sensors and Ac

    © 2019-2024 Copyright www.opinsb.com