Opel Insignia Owners & Service Manuals

Opel Insignia: Description and Operation

Metric Wheel Nuts and Bolts Description

Metric Wheel Nuts And Bolts Are Identified In The Following Way:

  • The Wheel Nut Has The Word Metric Stamped On The Face.
  • The Letter M Is Stamped On The End Of The Wheel Bolt.

The Thread Sizes Of Metric Wheel Nuts And The Bolts Are Indicated By The Following Example: M12 X 1.5

  • M = Metric
  • 12 = Bolt Diameter In Millimeters
  • 1.5 = Millimeters Gap Per Thread


Replace The Wheel If Any Of The Following Conditions Exist:

  • The Wheel Exhibits Excessive Runout.
  • The Wheel Is Bent.
  • The Wheel Is Cracked.
  • The Wheel Is Severely Rusted.
  • The Wheel Is Severely Corroded.

NOTE: Air Leaks Caused By Porosity On Aluminum Wheels Are Repairable.

WARNING: If You Are Replacing The Wheel(S), The Wheel Stud(S), The Wheel Nut(S) Or The Wheel Bolt(S), Install Only New Gm Original Equipment Parts. Installation Of Used Parts Or Non-Gm Original Equipment Parts May Cause The Wheel To Loosen, Loss Of Tire Air Pressure, Poor Vehicle Handling And Loss Of Vehicle Control Resulting In Personal Injury.

  • The Wheel Leaks Air.

CAUTION: The Use Of Non-Gm Original Equipment Wheels May Cause:

  • Damage To The Wheel Bearing, The Wheel Fasteners And The Wheel
  • Tire Damage Caused By The Modified Clearance To The Adjacent Vehicle Components
  • Adverse Vehicle Steering Stability Caused By The Modified Scrub Radius
  • Damage To The Vehicle Caused By The Modified Ground Clearance
  • Speedometer And Odometer Inaccuracy

Replace The Wheel, The Wheel Studs And The Wheel/Nuts, Or The Wheel Bolts If Applicable, If Any Of The Following Conditions Exist:

  • The Wheel Has Elongated Bolt Holes.
  • The Wheel/Nuts, Or Bolts If Applicable, Loosen Repeatedly.

Steel Wheel Identification Is Stamped Into The Wheel Near The Valve Stem.

Aluminum Wheel Identification Is Cast Into The Inboard Side Of The Wheel.

Tire Description

Passenger (P) Tires Are For Vehicles That Are Designed For Personal Use Such As Hatchbacks, Sedans, Coupes, And Crossovers. Many Suvs, Minivans, And Smaller Pickup Trucks (Typically Under 3/4 Ton) Also Use Passenger-Rated Tires.

If A Tire Does Not Have A "P" Or Another Letter In Front Of The Numbers, It Is Considered A "Euro- Metric" Tire. A Euro-Metric Tire Conforms To The European Tire Specifications, And Often Carries A Different Load Index Than A Comparably Sized P-Metric Tire.

Vehicles Such As 3/4 Ton Or Larger Pickup Trucks, Work Vans, And Other Large Vehicles That Regularly Carry Heavy Loads Or Pull Heavy Trailers Might Use Light Truck (Lt) Tires. These Tires Are Designed Differently Than Passenger Tires. Lt Tires Are Designed To Handle Additional Weight.

It's Critical To Ensure The Tire's Load Carrying Capacity Is Sufficient For The Vehicle's Weight, Including Any Cargo.

Replacement Tires Should Be Of The Same Tire Performance Criteria (Tpc) Specification Number. This Will Ensure The Same Size, The Same Load Range, And The Same Construction As Those Originally Installed On The Vehicle.

Tire Markings

Tires and Wheels

Tire Example

  1. P Or Lt: The "P" Indicates The Tire Is For Passenger Vehicles. "Lt" Indicates The Tire Is For Light Trucks.
  2. Nominal Width: This Three-Digit Number Gives The Width Of The Tire In Millimeters From Sidewall Edge To Sidewall Edge. The Larger The Number, The Wider The Tire.
  3. Aspect Ratio: This Two-Digit Number Gives The Tire's Ratio Of Height To Width. A Number Of 50 Or Lower Indicates A Short Sidewall For Improved Steering Response And Better Overall Handling.
  4. R: The "R" Stands For Radial. Radial Tires Have Been The Industry Standard For The Past 20 Years.
  5. Rim Diameter Code: This Two-Digit Number Is The Wheel Or Rim Diameter In Inches.
  6. Load Index And Speed Symbol: This Two Or Three Digit Number Is The Tire's Load Index. It Is An Indicator Of How Much Weight Each Tire Can Support. The Speed Rating Tells You The Maximum Speed Capability Of A Tire. The Speed Ratings Include Speeds From 99 Mph To Above 186 Mph. Note: You May Not Find This Information On All Tires Because It Is Not Required By Law.
  7. Dot Tire Identification Number: This Number Begins With The Letters "Dot" And Indicates That The Tire Meets All Standards. The Next Two Or Three Numbers Or Letters Are The Plant Code Where The Tire Was Manufactured. The Last Four Numbers Represent The Week And Year The Tire Was Built.
  8. M + S: This Indicates That The Tire Has Some Mud And Snow Capability.
  9. Tread Wear Indicators: Tread Wear Indicator Bars Are Built Into The Tire Tread. These Bars Are Invisible, Or Barely Visible When The Tires Are New And Gradually Appear As The Tread Wears Down.
  10. Tire Ply Composition And Materials: This Describes The Amount Of Plies And The Material That It Is Composed Of.
  11. Treadwear: The Treadwear Rating Indicates How Long The Tire Should Last. The Higher The Number, The Longer It Should Take For The Tires To Wear Down.
  12. Traction: The Traction Rating Indicates The Tire's Ability To Allow A Car To Stop On Wet Pavement In A Shorter Distance.
  13. Temperature: The Temperature Rating Indicates How Well The Tire Resists Heat.
  14. Maximum Permissible Inflation Pressure / Maximum Load Rating: This Maximum Permissible Inflation Pressure Is The Greatest Amount Of Air Pressure That Should Ever Be Put In The Tire. This Is Not The Same As The Vehicle Manufacturer's Recommended Tire Pressure. The Maximum Load Rating Is A Number Indicates The Maximum Load The Tire Can Carry.
  15. Reinforced: Reinforced Marking Where Applicable.
  16. Ece: Ece Type Approval Mark And Number.

Light Truck (Lt) Tire Markings


The "Lt" Indicates The Tire Is For Light Trucks.

Max. Load Dual Kg(Lbs) At Kpa(Psi) Cold

This Information Indicates The Maximum Load And Tire Pressure When The Tire Is Used As A Dual, That Is, When Four Tires Are Put On Each Rear Axle (A Total Of Six Or More Tires On The Vehicle).

Max. Load Single Kg(Lbs) At Kpa(Psi) Cold

This Information Indicates The Maximum Load And Tire Pressure When The Tire Is Used As A Single.

Load Range

This Information Identifies The Tire's Load-Carrying Capabilities And Its Inflation Limits.

Temporary (T) Tires

A Temporary Or "Spare" Tire Is An Additional Tire Carried In A Vehicle As A Replacement For One That Goes Flat, A Blowout, Or Other Emergency. Temporary Spare Tires Are Not Meant To Be Driven Long Distances.

Tires and Wheels

Compact Spare Tire Example

  1. Tire Ply Material: The Type Of Cord And Number Of Plies In The Sidewall And Under The Tread.
  2. Temporary Use Only: The Compact Spare Tire Is For Emergency Use When A Regular Road Tire Has Lost Air And Gone Flat.
  3. Tire Identification Number (Tin): The Letters And Numbers Following The Dot (Department Of Transportation) Code Are The Tire Identification Number (Tin). The Tin Shows The Manufacturer And Plant Code, Tire Size, And Date The Tire Was Manufactured.
  4. Maximum Cold Inflation Load Limit: Maximum Load That Can Be Carried And The Maximum Pressure Needed To Support That Load.
  5. Tire Inflation: The Temporary Use Tire Or Compact Spare Tire Should Be Inflated To A Specific Air Pressure
  6. Tire Size: A Combination Of Letters And Numbers Define A Tire's Width, Height, Aspect Ratio, Construction Type, And Service Description. The Letter T As The First Character In The Tire Size Means The Tire Is For Temporary Use Only.
  7. Tpc Spec (Tire Performance Criteria Specification): Original Equipment Tires Designed To Gm's Specific Tire Performance Criteria Have A Tpc Specification Code Molded Onto The Sidewall.

Tire Inflation Description

When You Inflate The Tires To The Recommended Inflation Pressures, The Factory-Installed Wheels And Tires Are Designed In Order To Handle Loads To The Tire's Rated Load Capacity. Incorrect Tire Pressures, Or Under-Inflated Tires, Can Cause The Following Conditions:

  • Vehicle Handling Concerns
  • Poor Fuel Economy
  • Shortened Tire Life
  • Tire Overloading

Inspect The Tire Pressure When The Following Conditions Apply:

  • The Vehicle Has Been Sitting At Least 3 Hours.
  • The Vehicle Has Not Been Driven For More Than 1.6 Km (1 Mi).
  • The Tires Are Cool.

Inspect The Tires Monthly Or Before Any Extended Trip. Adjust The Tire Pressure To The Specifications On The Tire Placard. Install The Valve Caps Or The Extensions On The Valves. The Caps Or The Extensions Keep Out Dust And Water.

The Kilopascal (Kpa) Is The Metric Term For Pressure. The Tire Pressure May Be Printed In Both Kilopascal (Kpa) And Pounds Per Square Inch (Psi). One Psi Equals 6.9 Kpa.

Inflation Pressure Conversion (Kilopascals To Psi)

Tires and Wheels

Tires With A Higher Than Recommended Pressure Can Cause The Following Conditions:

  • A Hard Ride
  • Tire Bruising
  • Rapid Tread Wear At The Center Of The Tire

Tires With A Lower Than Recommended Pressure Can Cause The Following Conditions:

  • A Tire Squeal On Turns
  • Hard Steering
  • Rapid Wear And Uneven Wear On The Edge Of The Tread
  • Tire Rim Bruises And Tire Rim Rupture
  • Tire Cord Breakage
  • High Tire Temperatures
  • Reduced Vehicle Handling
  • High Fuel Consumption
  • Soft Riding

Unequal Pressure On The Same Axle Can Cause The Following Conditions:

  • Uneven Braking
  • Steering Lead
  • Reduced Vehicle Handling

Refer To The Tire Placard For Specific Tire And Wheel Applications And Tire Pressures.


Tires and Wheels

The Original Equipment Tires Have Tread Wear Indicators (1) That Show When You Should Replace The Tires.

The Location Of These Indicators (1) Are At 60 Degree Intervals Around The Outer Diameter Of The Tire.

The Indicators (1) Appear As A 6 Mm (0.24 In) Wide Band When The Tire Tread Depth Reaches 1.6 Mm (0.06 In).





Rotor Resurfacing Kit

Tires and Wheels

Ch-42450- A


Wheel Hub Resurfacing Kit

Tires and Wheels


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