Opel Insignia Owners & Service Manuals

Opel Insignia: Description and Operation

ABS DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

Antilock Brake System

B22 - B22 Brake Pedal Position Sensor
S48E - S48E Multifunction Switch - Center Console
P16 - P16 Instrument Cluster
K9 - K9 Body Control Module
K20 - K20 Engine Control Module
K71 - K71 Transmission Control Module
K17 - K17 Electronic Brake Control Module
Q5 - Q5 Brake Pressure Modulator
K43 - K43 Power Steering Control Module
B5LF - B5LF Wheel Speed Sensor - Left Front
B5RF - B5RF Wheel Speed Sensor - Right Front
B5LR - B5LR Wheel Speed Sensor - Left Rear
B5RR - B5RR Wheel Speed Sensor - Right Rear
K36 - K36 Inflatable Restraint Sensing and Diagnostic Module

NOTE: EBCM terminal pin locations may differ between different RPO option brake systems.

This vehicle is equipped with a Bosch ABS 9.0 brake system. The electronic brake control module and the brake pressure modulator valve are serviced separately. The brake pressure modulator valve uses a four circuit configuration to control hydraulic pressure to each wheel independently. Vehicles built with option RPO FX3 will feature stability enhancement.

The following vehicle performance enhancement systems are provided.

  • ABS
  • Brake Assist
  • Electronic Brake Distribution
  • Electronic stability control
  • Hill start assist
  • Traction control system

The following components are involved in the operation of the above systems:

  • Electronic Brake Control Module - The electronic brake control module controls the system functions and detects failures. It supplies voltage to the solenoid valves and pump motor.
  • Brake pressure modulator valve - The brake pressure modulator valve contains the hydraulic valves and pump motor that are controlled electrically by the electronic brake control module. The brake pressure modulator uses a four circuit configuration with a diagonal split. The brake pressure modulator directs fluid from the reservoir of the master cylinder to the left front and right rear wheels and fluid from the other reservoir to the right front and left rear wheels. The diagonal circuits are hydraulically isolated so that a leak or malfunction in one circuit will allow continued braking ability on the other.

The brake pressure modulator contains the following components:

  • Brake pressure sensor
  • Four inlet valves (one per wheel)
  • Four outlet valves (one per wheel)
  • Pump motor
  • Two traction/stability control supply valves
  • Two traction/stability control isolation valves
  • Body control module monitors the brake pedal position sensor signal when the brake pedal is applied and sends a high speed serial data message to the electronic brake control module indicating the brake pedal position.
  • Brake pressure sensor is used to sense the action of the driver application of the brake pedal. The sensor provides an voltage signal that will increase as the brake pedal is applied. The electronic brake control module monitors the brake pressure sensor which is integral to the brake pressure modulator.
  • Instrument cluster - The instrument cluster displays the vehicle speed based on the information from the engine control module. The engine control module sends the vehicle speed information via a high speed serial data to the body control module. The body control module then sends the vehicle speed information via a low speed serial data to the instrument cluster in order to display the vehicle speed, either in kilometers or miles, based on the vehicle requirements.
  • Multi-axis acceleration sensor - The yaw rate, lateral acceleration and longitudinal acceleration sensors are combined into one multi-axis acceleration sensor, internal to the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module. The electronic brake control module receives serial data message inputs from the yaw rate, lateral acceleration and longitudinal acceleration sensor and activates stability control and hill hold start assist function depending on multi-axis acceleration sensor input.
  • Multifunction switch - The traction control switch is a multifunction momentary switch. The body control module monitors the signal circuit from the traction control switch and sends a high speed serial data message to the electronic brake control module indicating the switch position. The traction control and stability control are manually disabled or enabled by pressing the traction control switch.
  • Steering angle sensor - The electronic brake control module receives serial data message inputs from the steering angle sensor. The steering angle sensor signal is used to calculate the desired yaw rate.
  • Transmission control module - The electronic brake control module receives high speed serial data message inputs from the transmission control module indicating the gear position of the transmission for hill start assist functions.
  • Wheel speed sensors - This vehicle is equipped with unique directional wheel speed sensors that can detect wheel direction as well as zero wheel speed. The wheel speed sensors are Active sensors that receive a 12 V power supply voltage from the electronic brake control module and provides an output signal to the module. As the wheel spins, the wheel speed sensor sends the electronic brake control module a DC square wave signal. The electronic brake control module uses the frequency of the square wave signal to calculate the wheel speed.

Power-Up-Self Test

The electronic brake control module is able to detect many malfunctions whenever the ignition is ON.

However, certain failures cannot be detected unless active diagnostic tests are performed on the components. Shorted solenoid coil or motor windings, for example, cannot be detected until the components are commanded ON by the electronic brake control module. Therefore, a power-up self-test is performed to verify correct operation of system components. The electronic brake control module performs the first phase of the power-up self-test when the ignition is first turned ON. This phase consists of internal self-testing of the electronic brake control module along with electrical checks of system sensors and circuits.

Initialization Sequence

The initialization sequence cycles each solenoid valve and the pump motor, as well as the necessary relays, for approximately forty milliseconds to check component operation. The active test is initiated by the electronic brake control module at the start of the ignition cycle and the speed of the fastest wheel exceeds 16 km/h (10 MPH). If a fault condition is detected the electronic brake control module sets a DTC.

ABS

When wheel slip is detected during a brake application, an ABS event occurs. During ABS braking, hydraulic pressure in the individual wheel circuits is controlled to prevent any wheel from slipping. A separate hydraulic line and specific solenoid valves are provided for each wheel. The ABS can decrease, hold, or increase hydraulic pressure to each wheel. The ABS does not, however, increase hydraulic pressure above the amount which is transmitted by the master cylinder during braking.

During ABS braking, a series of rapid pulsations is felt in the brake pedal. These pulsations are caused by the rapid changes in position of the individual solenoid valves as the electronic brake control module responds to wheel speed sensor inputs and attempts to prevent wheel slip. These pedal pulsations are present only during ABS braking and stop when normal braking is resumed or when the vehicle comes to a stop. A ticking or popping noise may also be heard as the solenoid valves cycle rapidly. During ABS braking on dry pavement, intermittent chirping noises may be heard as the tires approach slipping.

These noises and pedal pulsations are considered normal during ABS operation.

Vehicles equipped with ABS may be stopped by applying normal force to the brake pedal. Brake pedal operation during normal braking is no different than that of previous non ABS systems. Maintaining a constant force on the brake pedal provides the shortest stopping distance while maintaining vehicle stability. The typical ABS activation sequence is as follows.

Pressure Hold

The electronic brake control module closes the inlet valve and keeps the outlet valve closed in order to isolate the system when wheel slip occurs. This holds the pressure steady on the brake so that the hydraulic pressure does not increase or decrease.

Pressure Decrease

The electronic brake control module decreases the pressure to individual wheels during a deceleration when wheel slip occurs. The inlet valve is closed and the outlet valve is opened. The excess fluid is stored in the accumulator until the return pump can return the fluid to the master cylinder.

Pressure Increase

The electronic brake control module increases the pressure to individual wheels during a deceleration in order to reduce the speed of the wheel. The inlet valve is opened and the outlet valve is closed. The increased pressure is delivered from the master cylinder.

Brake Assist

The brake assist function is designed to support the driver in emergency braking situations.

The electronic brake control module receives inputs from the brake pressure sensor. When the electronic brake control module senses an emergency braking situation, the electronic brake control module will actively increase the brake pressure to a specific maximum.

Electronic Brake Distribution

The electronic brake distribution function is designed to support the driver in emergency braking situations.

The electronic brake distribution is a control system that enhances the hydraulic proportioning function of the mechanical proportioning valve in the base brake system. The electronic brake distribution control system is part of the operation software in the electronic brake control module. The electronic brake distribution uses active control with existing ABS in order to regulate the vehicle's rear brake pressure.

Electronic Stability Control (RPO FX3)

The electronic stability control adds an additional level of vehicle control to the electronic brake control module.

Yaw rate is the rate of rotation about the vehicles vertical axis. The electronic stability control is activated when the electronic brake control module determines that the desired yaw rate does not match the actual yaw rate as measured by the yaw rate sensor.

The desired yaw rate is calculated from the following parameters:

  • The speed of the vehicle
  • The position of the steering wheel
  • The lateral acceleration of the vehicle

The difference between the desired yaw rate and the actual yaw rate is the yaw rate error, which is a measurement of over steer or under steer. If the yaw error becomes too large, the electronic brake control module attempts to correct the vehicles yaw rate motion by applying differential braking to the appropriate wheel. The amount of differential braking applied to the left or right front wheel is based on both the yaw rate error and side slip rate error.

The electronic stability control activations generally occur during aggressive driving, in turns or on bumpy roads without much use of the accelerator pedal. When braking during electronic stability control activation, the pedal pulsations feel different than the ABS pedal pulsations. The brake pedal pulsates at a higher frequency during vehicle stability enhancement system activation.

Hill Start Assist

When stopped on a hill, the hill start assist feature prevents the vehicle from rolling before driving off, whether facing uphill or downhill by holding the brake pressure during the transition between when the driver releases the brake pedal and starts to accelerate. The electronic brake control module calculates the brake pressure, which is needed to hold the vehicle on an incline or grade greater than 5% and locks that pressure for up to two seconds by commanding the appropriate solenoid valves ON and OFF when the brake pedal is released. The stop lamps will stay illuminated during the hill start assist operation even though the brake pedal is released, this is considered normal operation.

The hill start assist feature is determined by the electronic brake control module using the following inputs:

  • Accelerator pedal position
  • Brake pedal position sensor
  • Brake pressure
  • Clutch switch, if equipped
  • Engine torque
  • Longitudinal acceleration
  • Multi-axis acceleration sensor
  • Transmission gear information
  • Vehicle speed

Traction Control System

When drive wheel slip is noted while the brake is not applied, the electronic brake control module will enter traction control mode.

First, the electronic brake control module requests the engine control module to reduce the amount of torque to the drive wheels via the serial data. The engine control module reduces torque to the drive wheels by retarding spark timing and turning off fuel injectors. The engine control module reports the amount of torque delivered to the drive wheels via the serial data circuit.

  • Pressure hold
  • Pressure increase
  • Pressure decrease

Driver Information Indicator

ABS Warning Indicator

The instrument cluster turns the ABS warning indicator ON when the following occurs:

  • The instrument cluster performs the bulb check.
  • The electronic brake control module detects a malfunction which disables the ABS and sends a serial data message to the instrument cluster requesting illumination.

Brake Warning Indicator

The instrument cluster turns the brake warning indicator ON when the following occurs:

  • The instrument cluster performs the bulb check.
  • The electronic brake control module detects a fault and sends a serial data message to the instrument cluster requesting illumination.
  • The body control module detects that the park brake is engaged. The body control module sends a serial data message to the instrument cluster requesting illumination.

Traction/Stability Active Control Indicator

The instrument cluster turns the traction/stability active control system indicator ON when the following occurs:

  • The instrument cluster performs the bulb check.
  • The ABS system is in traction control or stability control mode.
  • The electronic brake control module detects a traction control/stability control occurring and sends a serial data message to the instrument cluster requesting illumination.

Traction Control Off Indicator

The instrument cluster turns the traction control off indicator ON when the following occurs:

  • The instrument cluster performs the bulb check.
  • The driver manually disables the traction control by pressing the traction control switch. The electronic brake control module sends a serial data message to the instrument cluster requesting illumination.

Stability Control Off Indicator

The instrument cluster turns the stability control off indicator ON when the following occurs:

  • The instrument cluster performs the bulb check.
  • The driver manually disables the electronic stability control by pressing and holding the traction control switch for five seconds. The electronic brake control module sends a serial data message to the instrument cluster requesting illumination.

Traction/Stability Control Indicator

The instrument cluster turns the traction/stability control system indicator ON when the following occurs:

  • The instrument cluster performs the bulb check.
  • The electronic brake control module detects a malfunction which disables the traction control or the electronic stability control and sends a serial data message to the instrument cluster requesting illumination.

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