Opel Insignia Owners & Service Manuals

Opel Insignia: Description and Operation

SUPPLEMENTAL INFLATABLE RESTRAINT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

SIR System Overview

The supplemental inflatable restraint (SIR) system supplements the protection offered by the seat belts. The SIR system contains an inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module (SDM), air bags, seat belt pretensioners (anchor and retractor), and impact sensors. The inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module determines the severity of a collision with the assistance of impact sensors located at strategic points on the vehicle. When the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module detects a collision, the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module will process the information provided by the sensors to further support air bag or pretensioner deployment. The inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module will deploy the air bags and pretensioners if it detects a collision of sufficient force. If the force of the impact is not sufficient to warrant air bag deployment, the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module may still deploy the seat belt pretensioners. The inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module contains a sensing device that converts vehicle velocity changes to an electrical signal. The inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module compares these signals to values stored in memory. If the signals exceed a stored value, the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module will determine the severity of the impact and either cause current to flow through the frontal deployment loops deploying the frontal air bags and pretensioners, or it will deploy the pretensioners only. The inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module continuously monitors the deployment loops for malfunctions and illuminates the SIR system AIR BAG indicator if a fault is detected. The inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module performs continuous diagnostic monitoring of the SIR system electrical components. Upon detection of a circuit malfunction, the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module will set a DTC and inform the driver by illuminating the SIR system AIR BAG indicator. The steering column and knee bolsters are designed to absorb energy and compress during frontal collisions in order to limit leg movement and decrease the chance of injury to the driver and passenger.

SIR System Air Bag Deployment Message

When the SDM commands a deployment, it also sends out a message on the GMLAN Bus. Other modules may command additional actions/features which may include:

  • Doors unlocking
  • Contacting Onstar
  • Hazards turning on
  • Fuel pump being turned off

SIR System AIR BAG Indicator

The SIR system AIR BAG indicator, located in the instrument cluster, is used to notify the driver of SIR system malfunctions and to verify that the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module is communicating with the instrument cluster. When the ignition is turned ON, the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module is supplied with ignition positive voltage. The instrument cluster will momentarily turn on the SIR system AIR BAG indicator. While the indicator is on, the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module conducts tests on all SIR system components and circuits. If no malfunctions are detected the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module will communicate with the instrument cluster through the serial data circuit and command the SIR system AIR BAG indicator OFF. The inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module provides continuous monitoring of the air bag circuits by conducting a sequence of checks. If a malfunction is detected the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module will store a diagnostic trouble code (DTC) and command the instrument cluster to illuminate the SIR system AIR BAG indicator via serial data. The presence of a SIR system malfunction could result in non-deployment of the air bags or deployment in conditions less severe than intended. The SIR system AIR BAG indicator will remain ON until the malfunction has been repaired.

Inflatable Restraint Sensing and Diagnostic Module (SDM)

The inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module (SDM) is a microprocessor and the control center for the supplemental inflatable restraint (SIR) system. The inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module contains internal sensors along with external impact sensors, mounted at strategic locations on the vehicle. In the event of a collision, the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module compares the signals from the internal and external impact sensors to a value stored in memory. When the generated signals exceed the stored value, the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module will cause current to flow through the appropriate deployment loops to deploy the air bags. The inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module records the SIR system status when a deployment occurs and illuminates the SIR system AIR BAG indicator located in the instrument cluster.

The inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module performs continuous diagnostic monitoring of the SIR system electrical components and circuitry when the ignition is turned ON. If the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module detects a malfunction, a DTC will be stored and the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module will request the instrument cluster to illuminate the SIR system AIR BAG indicator, notifying the driver that a malfunction exists. In the event that ignition positive voltage is lost during a collision, the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module maintains a 23-volt loop reserve for deployment of the air bags. It is important when disabling the SIR system for servicing or rescue operations to allow the 23-volt loop reserve to dissipate, which could take up to 1 minute.

Air Bags

This vehicle contains 8 air bags. The 8 air bags are located in the steering wheel (dual air bags), instrument panel (passenger side) (dual air bags), driver seat side (B-pillar), passenger seat side (B-pillar), left roof rail, right roof rail, left rear seat side (C-pillar), and the right rear seat side (C-pillar). To view the locations of the air bags refer to Master Electrical Component List. Air bags contain a housing, inflatable air bag, two initiating devices (if dual air bags), canister of gas generating material and, in some cases, stored compressed gas. The deployment loops supply current to deploy the air bags. The driver steering wheel and passenger instrument panel air bags have two stages of deployment, which varies the amount of restraint to the occupant according to the collision severity. For moderate frontal collisions the air bags deploy at less than full deployment which consists of stage 1 of the air bag. For more severe frontal collisions a full deployment is initiated which consists of stage 1 and stage 2 of the air bag. The current passing through the air bags ignite the material in the canister producing a rapid generation of gas and is some cases, the release of compressed gas. The gas produced from this reaction rapidly inflates the air bag. Once the air bag is inflated it quickly deflates through the air bag vent holes and/or the bag fabric. A shorting bar (if equipped) is located in the connector.

Seat Belt Pretensioners (Anchor and Retractor)

The seat belt pretensioners (driver and passenger) consist of a housing, seat belt retractor (located in the Bpillar), seat belt anchor (located on the floor), seat belt webbing, an initiator, and a canister of gas generating materials. To view the locations of the seat belt pretentioners refer to Master Electrical Component List. The initiator is part of the seat belt pretensioner deployment loop. When the vehicle is involved in a collision of sufficient force, the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module causes current to flow through the seat belt deployment loops to the initiator. Current passing through the initiator ignites the material in the canister producing a rapid generation of gas. The gas produced from this reaction deploys the seat belt pretensioners which removes all of the slack in the seat belts. Depending on the severity of the collision, the seat belt pretensioners may deploy without the frontal air bags deploying, or they will deploy immediately before the frontal air bags deploy. A shorting bar (if equipped) is located in the connector.

Impact Sensors

This vehicle contains up to 6 impact sensors. There are 6 impact sensors which are located in the front of the vehicle (2, left and right), and the 4 doors. To view the locations of the impact sensors refer to Master Electrical Component List. The impact sensors contain a sensing device which monitors vehicle acceleration and velocity changes to detect side collisions that are severe enough to warrant air bag deployment. The impact sensors are not part of the deployment loop, but instead provide input to the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module. The inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module contains a microprocessor that performs calculations using the measured accelerations and compares these calculations to a value stored in memory.

When the generated calculations exceed the stored value, the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module will cause current to flow through the deployment loops deploying the appropriate air bags.

Passenger Presence Detection System (If Equipped) and Passenger Air Bag Indicator

NOTE: The passenger presence system (PPS) is a calibrated unit. When replacing the assembly all parts in the service kit must remain together. Do not mix any of the old parts with the new parts. After repairing or replacing the passenger presence system, the preload test must be performed in order to function properly.

The passenger presence detection system (PPS) is used to monitor the type of occupant that is sitting in the front passenger seat and communicate the status to the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module (SDM). The inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module then uses this information to determine whether to enable or suppress the deployment of the passenger instrument panel air bag. The passenger presence detection system consists of an electronic control module, a sensor mat in the seat, a harness, and PASSENGER AIR BAG ON/OFF indicators. The passenger presence detection system transmits and receives a low-level electric field.

The measured capacitance value of this field is used to determine the type of occupant sitting in the front passenger seat. If the measured capacitance is less than a calibrated value, then the passenger presence module will send a hard wire signal to the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module to disable the passenger instrument panel air bag. If the measured capacitance is greater than a calibrated value, then the passenger presence module will send a serial data signal to the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module to enable the passenger instrument panel air bag. The passenger presence detection system module will notify the customer of the enable/disable status by illuminating one of the PASSENGER AIR BAG ON/OFF indicator. The passenger presence detection system monitors itself for faults and will displays diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs) on the scan tool. When a fault is detected, the passenger presence module sends out a message to the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module. The inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module responds by sending a command message to the instrument panel cluster to illuminate the SIR system AIR BAG indicator.

Passenger Air Bag Disable Switch (If Equipped)

The passenger air bag disable switch is used to turn the passenger instrument panel air bag, right roof rail air bag, and passenger seat side air bag on or off. The customer can decide to disable these air bags by turning this switch on. When the SDM sees a ground circuit from this switch the air bags are turned off. The vehicle has a PASSENGER AIR BAG ON/OFF indicator to tell the customer when these air bags are on or off based on the disable switch position.

Seat Belt Indicators

The seat belt indicators are controlled through the inflatable restraint sensing and diagnostic module (SDM). For further information on seat belt indicators refer to Seat Belt System Description and Operation.

SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL TOOLS

EL 38826

J 38826

KM 799-3

SIR Deployment Harness

Supplemental Inflatable Restraints

EL 39401-B

J 39401-B

SIR Deployment Fixture

Supplemental Inflatable Restraints

EL 38826 - 200

SIR Deployment Harness Jumper

Supplemental Inflatable Restraints

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